- Conceptual Classifications (1) Administration, management, organization, public administration
- Dichotomy in administration (1) Administration and politics, interplay of political institutions and administration, decision making in administration, personnel in administration.
- Theories of Administration, scientific management theory, bureaucratic theory, functional management theory, human and relation movement of theory, administration management theory, behavioral system theory, group theory.
This can be defined as a goal obtain by two or more persons.
Administration is anything that two or more people come together to accomplish a task/goal. It is a goal being accomplished by two or more people. It is the ability on integrity personnel into accomplishing conflicted issues or task.
Administration is a system that involves personnel to accomplish a particular goals or objectives.
Administration is a universal practice and also of universal importance. It is said to commerce when two people agree to cooperate to undertake a task which none can take alone.
Administration is inevitable in any given situation where a place of work requires effort of more than one persin to accomplish it. We are involve in administration behavior when we cooperate with their people to accomplish a said objective.
Administration and management are two distinct factor. Management comes from the english verb “manage” comes from the Italian word maneggiaer which means to handle especially tools. It is derived from two latin words which are manos and agere. Manos means hands and agere means to act thats why french calls it managere and english calls it manager. Managere in french is known as house keeping.
It is defined in different ways. Each definition trying to reflect a particular perspective. One of such definitions view organization as a highly rationalize and impersonal integration of a large number of specialists cooperating to achieve some announced specific objectives.
Another definition sees organization as a system pf consciously coordinated personnel activities or forces of two or more person and other defines organization as a continuing system.
The modern state is called the administrative state. The importance of public administration in modern society has been described as an act of modern civilization. Public administration is the process by which public resources and personnel are organize to formulate, implement and manage public policy decisions. Public administration as a discipline was born in the United state. Wildrow Wilson seminar contribution to the study of Administration published in the political science journal of 1887 laid the foundation for a systematic study for public administration.
According to Woodrow Wilson, public administration is a detailed and systematic study of public law. He described administration as an act but emphasize that it been study scientifically. The dichotomy between politics and administration was first mooted by Wilson. He argues that administration and politics are separate. According to him, the field of Administration is a field of business. He regarded public administration as a field of study which is different from political science. Systematic study and analysis of administrative theory can be traced yo the latter part of the 19th and the early 20th century. The proponents of this administrative theory are Henry Fayol, Muther Gullick, Fredick Tayo
He extended tailors theory and emphasize the importance of minimizing diversity as well as ambiguity in firms. He differentiated authority from control. Weber’s bureaucratic theory stressed the necessity for the hierarchical system of power. The theory identified the significance of division of labour and specialisation. The administrative theory was formalised by Mooney and reiley in 1931. The theory developed a common set of management principle applicable to all companies. However, the classical management theory was inflexible and mechanistic. It’s main weakness was it determination to justify individuals motivation to work as a role of an economic recompense.
NEO CLASSICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY:
The human relations association emerge as a response to the harsh dictatorial structure of the classical theory. The neo classical organization theory handled several challenges inherent in the classical theory. The main opposition to classical theory were over compliance as well as inflexibility therefore, it’s suppressed individual creativity, progression and enthusiasm. The neo classical theory exhibited sincere concerns for people’s needs and one of the lead proponent of this theory is Elton mayor.
THE MODERN ORGANIZATION THEORY:
During the mid twentieth century, the third technical transformation stirred the rapid development of economy resulting in several new economic event and impacted organizational environment intensely.
The fact classical and neo classical organization theory could not describe these organizational changes in such forceful condition necessitating transformation of theory that put organizational theory into a new level of growth. Regarding human environment relationship view, modern organization theories consider organizations as open systems and derive new perspective and techniques from complexity science.